In the treatment of cancer, high doses of radiation are used to destroy cancer cells by damaging their DNA. When the DNA of a cancer cell is destroyed beyond repair, the cell dies and is then eliminated by the body through natural processes.
Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation treatment that has been used to treat more than 170,000 people worldwide. By 2030, it is estimated that between 300,000 and 600,000 patients will have received proton therapy treatment.
The following are research studies published between 2016 and 2021 that underscore the benefits of proton therapy for certain cancer patients. The majority of the studies employ pencil beam scanning, the most precise form of proton therapy.
ProTom’s Radiance 330® Proton Therapy System employs Fidelity™ Beam Scanning. This pencil-beam scanning technology with gating capability enables the highest treatment precision.
Garces Y, Remmes N, et, al. Retrospective Review of Patients With Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices Treated With Spot Scanning Proton Therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 111, Issue 3, Supplement, 1 November 2021, Page e499.doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.07.1375
Loizeau N., Fabiano S., et.al. Optimal allocation of proton therapy slots in combined proton-photon radiotherapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2021 April 20; doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.03.054.
Li G, Qui B, et. al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of proton beam therapy for treatment decision making in paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancers in China.BMC Cancer. 2020 June26.
B. Baumann, N. Mitra, J. Harton, et. al. Comparative Effectiveness of Proton vs Photon Therapy as Part of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cancer.JAMA Oncol. 2019 Dec 26.
Yuan TZ, Zhan ZJ, Qian CN. New frontiers in proton therapy: applications in cancers.Cancer Comun (Lond). 2019 Oct 22; 39(1):61.
Gao M, Mohiuddin MM, Hartsell WF, et. al. Spatially fractionated (GRID) radiation therapy using proton pencil beam scanning (PBS): Feasibility study and clinical implementation. Med Phys. 2018 Apr;45(4):1645-1653.
Carter R, Nickson C, et. al. Complex DNA Damage Induced by High Linear Energy Transfer Alpha-Particles and Protons Triggers a Specific Cellular DNA Damage Response. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Mar 1; 100(3):776-784.
Bright SJ, Flint DB, Chakraborty, et. al. Non-homologous end joining is more important than proton linear energy transfer in dictating cell death.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Aug 16.
Giantsoudi D, Adams J, MacDonald S, Paganetti H. Can differences in linear energy transfer and thus relative biological effectiveness compromise the dosimetric advantage of intensity-modulated proton therapy as compared to passively scattered proton therapy?Acta Oncol. 2018 May 4:1-6.
Hassan MZO, Awadalla M, et al. Serial Measurement of Global Longitudinal Strain among Women with Breast Cancer treated with Proton Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Trial for 70 Patients. Radiation Oncology. Published 2022 August 23. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2022.08.036
S Fattahi, TC Mullikin, et al. Proton therapy for the treatment of inflammatory breast cancer,Radiotherapy and Oncology. Volume 171, 2022, Pages 77-83, ISSN 0167-8140, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2022.04.008.
Ishikawa, Y., Suzuki, M., et al. Successful treatment with proton beam therapy for a solitary sternal metastasis of breast cancer: a case report. J Med Case Reports 16, 111 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-022-03335-5
Garda AE, Hunzeker AE, et al. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for bilateral breast/chest wall and comprehensive nodal irradiation for synchronous bilateral breast cancer: initial clinical experience and dosimetric comparison. Advances in Radiation Oncology, 2022,100901, ISSN 2452-1094, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2022.100901.
Boersma LJ, Sattler MGA, et al. Model-Based Selection for Proton Therapy in Breast Cancer: Development of the National Indication Protocol for Proton Therapy and First Clinical Experiences. Clinical Oncology, Jan 5 2022, ISSN 0936-6555, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2021.12.007.
R Lin, J. Shan., et.al. Dosimetric comparison of intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy versus intensity-modulated photon-based radiotherapy for breast cancer. Vis Cancer Med, Volume 2, 5 2021. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1051/vcm/2021002
Cartechini G, Fracchiolla F, et, al. Proton pencil beam scanning reduces secondary cancer risk in breast cancer patients with internal mammary chain involvement compared to photon radiotherapy. Radiation Oncology 15: 228. 2020 Oct 02.
Justin E Bekelman, Hien Lu, Stephanie Pugh. et. al. Pragmatic randomised clinical trial of proton versus photon therapy for patients with non-metastatic breast cancer: the Radiotherapy Comparative Effectiveness (RadComp) Consortium trial protocol.BMJ Open. 2019; 9(10): e025556.
D. Pasalic, E.A. Strom, P.K. Allen, et, al. Prospectively Assessed Outcomes for Proton Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): S193
J.A. Bradley1, X. Liang, M.S. Rutenberg, et, al. Three Year Outcomes of Proton Therapy for Regional Nodal Irradiation in Breast Cancer.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E1
J.R. Niska, C.S. Thorpe, J. Anderson, et, al. Post-Mastectomy Radiotherapy using Proton Beam Therapy: Prospective Multi-Institutional PCG Registry Analysis.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E6
I.J. Choi, K. Prabhu Jr., W.F. Hartsell, et, al. Clinical Outcomes after Proton Partial-Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: 3-Year Outcomes of a Phase II Trial.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E19
C.S. Thorpe, J.R. Niska, J. Anderson, et, al.Proton Beam Therapy after Breast-Conserving Surgery for Breast Cancer: Multi-institutional Prospective PCG Registry Analysis.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E35
Speleers B, Belosi FM, et. al. Comparison of supine or prone crawl photon or proton breast and regional lymph node radiation therapy including the internal mammary chain. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 18;9(1):4755.
Leo L, Cuaron et al.Early outcomes of breast cancer patients treated with post-mastectomy uniform scanning proton therapy.Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2018.
Smith N, Jethwa KR, et. al. Early Toxicity and Patient Reported Outcomes of Post-Mastectomy Pencil-Beam Scanning Proton Therapy in Women with Immediate Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Nov. 102(suppl 3): e573–e574.
Stick L, Yu J, et. al. Joint Estimation of Cardiac Toxicity and Recurrence Risks After Comprehensive Nodal Photon Versus Proton Therapy for Breast Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Mar 15;97(4):754-761.
Bradley JA, Dagan R, et. al. Initial Report of a Prospective Dosimetric and Clinical Feasibility Trial Demonstrates the Potential of Protons to Increase the Therapeutic Ratio in Breast Cancer Compared With Photons.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 May 1;95(1):411-21.
Jimenez RB, Hickey S, DePauw N, et. al. Phase II Study of Proton Beam Radiation Therapy for Patients With Breast Cancer Requiring Regional Nodal Irradiation.J Clin Oncol. 2019 Aug 26.
de Boer P, van de Schoot AJAJ, Westerveld H, et. al. Target tailoring and proton beam therapy to reduce small bowel dose in cervical cancer radiotherapy: A comparison of benefits. Strahlenther Onkol. 2018 Mar;194(3):255-263.
Lin LL, Kirk M, Scholey J, et. al. Initial Report of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Posthysterectomy Patients With Gynecologic Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 May 1;95(1):181-9.
Solidum JGN, Rojo RD, Wo JY, Dee EC. Proton Beam Therapy for Esophageal Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(16):4045. Published 2022 Aug 22. doi:10.3390/cancers14164045
Gerard A, Peyrichon ML, Vidal M, et al. Ocular proton therapy, pencil beam scanning high energy proton therapy or stereotactic radiotherapy for uveal melanoma; an in silico study. Cancer/Radiothérapie, 2022, ISSN 1278-3218, doi: 10.1016/j.canrad.2022.03.003.
Han JE, Lozano A, Hasan S, et al. Proton Therapy Outcomes for Head and Neck Cutaneous Melanoma: Proton Collaborative Group Analysis. Int J Part Ther (2022); Published 2022 July 6. Doi: 10.14338/IJPT-22-00003.1
Lin SH, Liao K, Lei X, et al. Health Care Resource Utilization for Esophageal Cancer Using Proton versus Photon Radiation Therapy. Int J Part Ther. 2022;9(1):18-27. Published 2022 Jun 23. doi:10.14338/IJPT-22-00001.1
E Fleuryab, P Trnková, et al. Improving Organs-at-Risk Sparing for Choroidal Melanoma Patients: A CT-based Two-Beam Strategy in Ocular Proton Therapy with a Dedicated Eyeline. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 27 April 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2022.04.021
Patel, S.H. , Ma D.J., et al. A Prospective Study of Mucosal Sparing Proton Beam Therapy in Resected Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 112, Issue 5, e13 – e14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.12.034
Takahiro K, Takashi O, et, al. Dose–volume comparison of intensity modulated proton therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy for cervical esophageal cancer, Medical Dosimetry, 2022, ISSN 0958-3947. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meddos.2022.02.009
Press, R.H., Hu L, et, al. Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) for Novel Oral Tongue Avoidance Concept in Low-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 112, Issue 5, e24 – e25,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.12.055
Scandurra D, Meijer TWH, et, al. Evaluation of robustly optimised intensity modulated proton therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiother Oncol. 2022 Feb 5;168:221-228. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2022.01.043.
Wu PW, Huang CC, Lee YS, et al. Post-Irradiation Sinus Mucosa Disease in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated with Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(1):225. Published 2022 Jan 4. doi:10.3390/cancers14010225
Sheikh, Saad MD; Kharouta, Michael Z. MD, et al. Proton Beam Therapy for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Tumors.American Journal of Clinical Oncology: December 08, 2021 – Volume – Issue – doi: 10.1097/COC.0000000000000883
Scher N, Bentahila G, et, al. Proton Therapy for Adult Craniopharyngioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 111, Issue 3, Supplement, 1 November 2021, Page e561.doi: https://www.redjournal.org/article/S0360-3016(21)02388-9/pdf
Hung HM, Chan OCM, et, al. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy and intensity modulated proton therapy in the treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Medical Dosimetry, August 29,2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meddos.2021.07.002
Y.H. Lin, J.Y. Cheng., et.al. Significant Reduction in Vertebral Artery Dose by Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: A Pilot Study for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080822
Chou YC., Fan KH., et, al. Intensity Modulated Proton Beam Therapy versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Patients with Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matched Study.Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jul 16;13(14):3555.doi: 10.3390/cancers13143555.
Thaker NG, Boyce-Fappiano D, et al. Activity-Based Costing of Intensity-Modulated Proton versus Photon Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer. Int J Part Ther. 2021 Jun 25;8(1):374-382.doi: 10.14338/IJPT-20-00042.1.
Li XZ, Kitpanit S,et al. Toxicity Profiles and Survival Outcomes Among Patients With Nonmetastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy vs Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy.JAMA Netw Open.June 18, 2021;4(6):e2113205. doi:10.1001.
Williams M.V., Parvathaneni U., et.al. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Nasopharynx Cancer: 2-year Outcomes from a Single Institution.Int J Part Ther (2021); doi:10.14338/IJPT-20-00057.1.
Nguyen M, Cantrell N, Athmad S, Henson C. Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of head and neck cancer: A dosimetric comparison. Medical Dosimetry. 2021 Feb 26.
Brodin NP, Kabarriti, et.al. Individualized quality of life benefit and cost-effectiveness estimates of proton therapy for patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Radiat Oncol. 2021 Jan 21. Doi: 10.1186/s13014-021-01745-1.
Pelak M, Walser M, et. al. Clinical outcomes of head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma patients treated with pencil beam-scanning proton therapy. Oral Oncol. Volume 107, 2020 Aug; 104752.
Fan M, Kang JJ, Lee A, et.al. Outcomes and toxicities of definitive radiotherapy and reirradiation using 3‐dimensional conformal or intensity‐modulated (pencil beam) proton therapy for patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinus malignancies.ACS J. 2020 Feb 25.
G.L. Smith, M.S. Ning, et, al.Impact of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy vs. Intensity-Modulated Photon Therapy on Preserving Work and Productivity in Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients: Outcomes of a Multi-Institution Randomized Trial.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E427-E428
H. Bahig, A.S. Garden,G.B. Gunn, et, al. Head and Neck Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Focus on Outcomes of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E432
H. Minatogawa, K. Yasuda,T. Matsuura, et, al. The Potential Benefit of Adaptive Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Planning Comparison Study.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E394
V.M. Williams, B. Sasidharan, S. Aljabab, et, al. Proton Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Early Clinical Outcomes From a Single Institution.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E397
H. Bahig, G.B. Gunn,A.S. Garden, et, al. Toxicity and Pharyngeal Dysphagia Outcomes from Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Cancer.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E410
G.B. Gunn, A.S. Garden, R. Ye, et, al. Clinical Outcomes after Proton Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A 12 Year Single Institution Experience.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E373
M. Shuja, D.M. Routman, R.L. Foote, et, al. Clinical Outcomes after Re-irradiation in Recurrent Head and Neck Cancers treated with Intensity Modulated Proton and Photon Therapies.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E382- E383
Pearlstein KA, Wang K, Amdur RJ. Quality of Life for Patients With Favorable-Risk HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer After De-intensified Chemoradiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Mar 1;103(3):646-653.
Moreno A, Frank S, et. al. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) – The future of IMRT for head and neck cancer. Oral Oncology. 2018 Jan 88:66-74
Sharma S, Zhou O, Thompson R, et. al. Quality of Life of Postoperative Photon versus Proton Radiation Therapy for Oropharynx Cancer. International Journal of Particle Therapy. 2018. In-Press.
Gu W, O’Connor D, Nguyen D, et. al. Integrated beam orientation and scanning-spot optimization in intensity-modulated proton therapy for brain and unilateral head and neck tumors. Med Phys. 2018 Apr;45(4):1338-1350.
De Felice F, Polimeni A, et. al. Radiotherapy Controversies and Prospective in Head and Neck Cancer: A Literature-Based Critical Review. Neoplasia. 2018; 20(3): 227-232.
Langendijk JA, Steenbakkers RJ. Optimizing Radiotherapy in HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients.Recent Results Cancer Res. 2017;206:161-171. Review.
Apinorasethkul O, Kirk M, et al. Pencil beam scanning proton therapy vs rotational arc radiation therapy: A treatment planning comparison for postoperative oropharyngeal cancerMedical Dosimetry. 2017; 42 (1): 7-11.
Zhang W, Zhang X, Yang P, er. al. Intensity-modulated proton therapy and osteoradionecrosis in oropharyngeal cancer.Radiother Oncol. 2017 Jun;123(3):401-405.
van Dijk LV, Steenbakkers RJ, ten Haken B, et. al. Robust Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Increases Estimated Clinical Benefit in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.PLoS One. 2016 Mar 31;11(3):e0152477.
Sio TT, Lin HK, Shi Q, et. al. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Photon Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: First Comparative Results of Patient-Reported Outcomes.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 Jul 15;95(4):1107-14.
Blanchard P, Garden AS, Gunn GB, et. al. Intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (IMPT) versus intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT) for patients with oropharynx cancer – A case matched analysis.Radiother Oncol. 2016 Jul;120(1):48-55.
McKeever MR, Sio TT, Gunn GB, et. al. Reduced acute toxicity and improved efficacy from intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for the management of head and neck cancer.Chin Clin Oncol. 2016 Aug;5(4):54.
Holliday EB, Kocak-Uzel E, Feng L, et. al. Dosimetric advantages of intensity-modulated proton therapy for oropharyngeal cancer compared with intensity-modulated radiation: A case-matched control analysis.Med Dosim. 2016 Autumn;41(3):189-94.
Phan J, Sio TT, Nguyen TP, et. al. Reirradiation of Head and Neck Cancers With Proton Therapy: Outcomes and Analyses.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 Sep 1;96(1):30-41.
S Nangia, U Gaikwad, et, al. Proton therapy for skull-base adenoid cystic carcinomas: A case series and review of literature. J Can Res. April 1st, 2022. Doi: 10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_1236_21
Gordon, K., Gulidov, I., Koryakin, S. et al. Proton therapy with a fixed beamline for skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas: outcomes and toxicity. Radiat Oncol 16, 238 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01961-9
Kroeze S.G.C, Mackeorang PH, et, al. A Prospective Study on Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adult Brain Tumor Patients Treated with Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Oct; 13(19): 4892. doi: 10.3390/cancers13194892
Kimberley SK, Erik F, et, al. Outcome and Toxicity of Proton Therapy for Vestibular Schwannoma A Cohort Study. Otology & Neurotology. September 17, 2021. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003313
Chambrelant I, Eber J, et, al. Proton Therapy and Gliomas: A Systematic Review. Radiation 2021, 1(3), 218-233; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation1030019
M Walser, B Bojaxhiu., et.al. Clinical Outcome of Sacral Chordoma Patients Treated with Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy.Clinical Oncol, 2021 Aug 02. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2021.07.012
Liu, IC., Holtzman, A.L., Rotondo, R.L. et al. Proton therapy for adult medulloblastoma: Acute toxicity and disease control outcomes. J Neurooncol (2021).
Mohan R, Liu AY , et. al. Proton therapy reduces the likelihood of high-grade radiation-induced lymphopenia in glioblastoma patients: phase II randomized study of protons vs photons.Neuro-Oncology, Volume 23, Issue 2, February 2021, Pages 284–294.
Scartoni D, Amelio D, Palumbo P, et. al. Proton therapy re-irradiation preserves health-related quality of life in large recurrent glioblastoma.J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020 Mar 21.
Iannalfi A, D’lppolito E, Riva G, et. al. Proton and carbon ions radiotherapy in skull base chordomas: a prospective study based on a dual particle and a patient-customized treatment strategy.Neuro Oncol. 2020 Mar 20. pii: noaa067.
Stross WC，Malouff TD, Waddle MR, et. al. Proton beam therapy utilization in adults with primary brain tumors in the United States.J Clin Neurosci. 2020 Mar 14. pii: S0967-5868(20)30013-8.
M.J. Amsbaugh, E.L. Chang, A. Mahajan, et, al. Proton Beam Therapy for the Post-Operative Treatment of Skull Base Sarcoma: The Results of Two Phase II Single Arm Protocols.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): S130
C. Lynch, K.G. Petras, W.F. Hartsell, et, al. Proton Therapy for Craniospinal Radiochemotherapy Reduces Myelotoxicity and Improves Chemotherapy Completion in Adult Medulloblastoma.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): S141-S142
Sakthivel V, Ganesh KM, et. al. Second malignant neoplasm risk after craniospinal irradiation in X-ray-based techniques compared to proton therapy. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2019 Feb 6.
Correia D, Terribilini D, et. al. Whole-ventricular irradiation for intracranial germ cell tumors: Dosimetric comparison of pencil beam scanned protons, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy. Clin Transl Radiat Oncol. 2019 Jan 9;15:53-61.
Mercado CE, Holtzman AL, Rotondo R, Rutenberg MS, Mendenhall WM. Proton therapy for skull base tumors: A review of clinical outcomes for chordomas and chondrosarcomas.Head Neck. 2019 Feb;41(2):536-541.
Adeberg S, Harrabi SB, et. al. Dosimetric Comparison of Proton Radiation Therapy, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy, and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Based on Intracranial Tumor Location. Cancers (Basel). 2018 Oct 26;10(11).
Ardenfors O, Dsu A, Lillhök J, et. al. Out-of-field doses from secondary radiation produced in proton therapy and the associated risk of radiation-induced cancer from a brain tumor treatment. Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics. 2018 Sep; 53: 129-136.
Leeman JE, Lee NY, Zhou Y, et. al. Endoscopic Resection Followed by Proton Therapy With Pencil Beam Scanning for Skull Base Tumors. Laryngoscope. 2018 Sep 12.
Murray FR, Snider JW, Bolsi A, et. al. Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Benign and Non-benign Intracranial Meningiomas.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Aug 12.
Weber DC, Malyapa R, Albertini F, et. al. Long term outcomes of patients with skull-base low-grade chondrosarcoma and chordoma patients treated with pencil beam scanning proton therapy.Radiother Oncol. 2016 Jul;120(1):169-74.
Holm AIS, Petersen JBB, Muren LP, et. al. Functional image-guided dose escalation in gliomas using of state-of-the-art photon vs. proton therapy.Acta Oncol. 2017 Jun;56(6):826-831.
Geng C, Moteabbed M, Seco J, et. al. Dose assessment for the fetus considering scattered and secondary radiation from photon and proton therapy when treating a brain tumor of the mother.Phys Med Biol. 2016 Jan 21;61(2):683-95.
Adeberg S, Harrabi SB, Bougatf N, et. al. Intensity-modulated proton therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and 3D conformal radiotherapy in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma : A dosimetric comparison.Strahlenther Onkol. 2016 Nov;192(11):770-779.
Petr J, Platzek l, Hofheinz F, et. al. Photon vs. proton radiochemotherapy: Effects on brain tissue volume and perfusion.Radiother Oncol. 2018 Jul; 128(1):121-127.
Baumann BC, Lustig RA, Mazzoni S, et. al. A prospective clinical trial of proton therapy for chordoma and chondrosarcoma: Feasibility assessment.J Surg Oncol. 2019 Aug; 120(2): 200-205.
Stieb S, Snider JW 3rd, Placidi L, Kliebsch U, Lomax AJ, et. al. Long-Term Clinical Safety of High-Dose Proton Radiation Therapy Delivered With Pencil Beam Scanning Technique for Extracranial Chordomas and Chondrosarcomas in Adult Patients: Clinical Evidence of Spinal Cord Tolerance.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Sep 4.
Marinkovic M, Pors LJ, van den Berg V, et al. Clinical Outcomes after International Referral of Uveal Melanoma Patients for Proton Therapy. Cancers (Basel). 2021;13(24):6241. Published 2021 Dec 13. doi:10.3390/cancers13246241
Biewald E., Kiefer., et.al. Feasibility of Proton Beam Therapy as a Rescue Therapy in Heavily Pre-Treated Retinoblastoma Eyes.Cancers (Basel). 2021 Apr; 13(8): 1862.doi: 10.3390/cancers13081862.
J. Thariat, J. Salleron, C. Maschi, et. al. Oncologic and visual outcomes after postoperative proton therapy of localized conjunctival melanomas.Radiat Oncol. 2019 Dec 27; 14: 239.
Scholz SL, Hérault J, et. al. Proton radiotherapy in advanced malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva.Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2019 Mar 27.
Dionisi F, Scartoni D, Fracchiolla F, et al. Proton therapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Front Oncol. 2022;12:959552. Published 2022 Aug 8. doi:10.3389/fonc.2022.959552
R.S. Bhangoo, T.C. Mullikin., et.al. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Initial Clinical Experience.Adv Radiat Oncol. 2021 Mar 2;6(4):100675.Doi: 10.1016/j.adro.2021.100675.
M Moteabbed, J Smeets., et.al. Toward MR-integrated proton therapy: modeling the potential benefits for liver tumors.Phys Med Biol. 2021 Aug 18. Doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/ac1ef2.
Iwata H, Ogino H, et.al. Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Elderly Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: High Local Control and Quality of Life Preservation. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jan; 13(2): 219. doi: 10.3390/cancers13020219
Chuong M, Kaiser A, Molitoris J, et. al. Proton beam therapy for liver cancers.J Gastrointest Oncol. 2020 Feb; 11(1): 157–165.
Shaakir Hasan, Stephen Abel, Vivek Verma. et. al. Proton beam therapy versus stereotactic body radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: practice patterns, outcomes, and the effect of biologically effective dose escalation.J Gastrointest Oncol. 2019 Oct; 10(5): 999-1009.
Mondlane G, Gubanski M, Lind PA, et. al. Comparative study of the calculated risk of radiation-induced cancer after photon- and proton-beam based radiosurgery of liver metastases. Phys Med. 2017 Mar 30. pii: S1120-1797(17)30078-9.
Suh YG, Noh JM, Lee DY, et al. Proton Beam Therapy versus Photon Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(15):3627. Published 2022 Jul 26. doi:10.3390/cancers14153627
Oonsiri S, Kitpanit S, et al. Comparison of intensity modulated proton therapy beam configurations for treating thoracic esophageal cancer. Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2022;22:51-56. Published 2022 Apr 28. doi:10.1016/j.phro.2022.04.005
König L, Hörner-Rieber J, et al. Secondary Malignancy Risk Following Proton vs. X-ray Radiotherapy of Thymic Epithelial Tumors: A Comparative Modeling Study of Thoracic Organ-Specific Cancer Risk. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(10):2409. Published 2022 May 13. doi:10.3390/cancers14102409
Noh, J.M., Yoo, H, et, al. Prospective Study of Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer Patients with Poor Lung Function or Pulmonary Fibrosis. Cancers 2022, 14, 1445. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061445
Mohindra P, Saeed A, et, al. Toxicity and Survival Outcomes From Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy-Based Re-Irradiation in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics. Volume 112, Issue 2, E4-E5. Feb 01, 2022. Doi:I:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.10.167
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