Clinical Efficacy of Proton Therapy.

In the treatment of cancer, high doses of radiation are used to destroy cancer cells by damaging their DNA.  When the DNA of a cancer cell is destroyed beyond repair, the cell dies and is then eliminated by the body through natural processes.

Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation treatment that has been used to treat more than 160,000 people worldwide. By 2030, it is estimated that between 300,000 and 600,000 patients will have received proton therapy treatment.

The following are research studies published between 2016 and 2018 that underscore the benefits of proton therapy for certain cancer patients. The majority of the studies employ pencil beam scanning, the most precise form of proton therapy.

ProTom’s Radiance 330® Proton Therapy System employs Fidelity Beam Scanning.  This pencil-beam scanning technology with gating capability enables the highest treatment precision.


Carter R, Nickson C, et. al. Complex DNA Damage Induced by High Linear Energy Transfer Alpha-Particles and Protons Triggers a Specific Cellular DNA Damage Response. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Mar 1; 100(3):776-784.


Lin LL, Kirk M, Scholey J, et. al. Initial Report of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Posthysterectomy Patients With Gynecologic Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 May 1;95(1):181-9.


Murray FR, Snider JW, Bolsi A, et. al. Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Benign and Non-benign Intracranial Meningiomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Aug 12.


Langendijk JA, Steenbakkers RJ. Optimizing Radiotherapy in HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2017;206:161-171. Review.


Apinorasethkul O, Kirk M, et al. Pencil beam scanning proton therapy vs rotational arc radiation therapy: A treatment planning comparison for postoperative oropharyngeal cancer Medical Dosimetry. 2017; 42 (1): 7-11.


Weber DC, Malyapa R, Albertini F, et. al. Long term outcomes of patients with skull-base low-grade chondrosarcoma and chordoma patients treated with pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Radiother Oncol. 2016 Jul;120(1):169-74.


Zhang W, Zhang X, Yang P, er. al. Intensity-modulated proton therapy and osteoradionecrosis in oropharyngeal cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2017 Jun;123(3):401-405.


Holm AIS, Petersen JBB, Muren LP, et. al. Functional image-guided dose escalation in gliomas using of state-of-the-art photon vs. proton therapy. Acta Oncol. 2017 Jun;56(6):826-831.


Geng C, Moteabbed M, Seco J, et. al. Dose assessment for the fetus considering scattered and secondary radiation from photon and proton therapy when treating a brain tumor of the mother. Phys Med Biol. 2016 Jan 21;61(2):683-95.


van Dijk LV, Steenbakkers RJ, ten Haken B, et. al. Robust Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Increases Estimated Clinical Benefit in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 31;11(3):e0152477.


Sio TT, Lin HK, Shi Q, et. al. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Photon Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: First Comparative Results of Patient-Reported Outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 Jul 15;95(4):1107-14.


Blanchard P, Garden AS, Gunn GB, et. al. Intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (IMPT) versus intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT) for patients with oropharynx cancer – A case matched analysis. Radiother Oncol. 2016 Jul;120(1):48-55.


McKeever MR, Sio TT, Gunn GB, et. al. Reduced acute toxicity and improved efficacy from intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for the management of head and neck cancer. Chin Clin Oncol. 2016 Aug;5(4):54.


Holliday EB, Kocak-Uzel E, Feng L, et. al. Dosimetric advantages of intensity-modulated proton therapy for oropharyngeal cancer compared with intensity-modulated radiation: A case-matched control analysis. Med Dosim. 2016 Autumn;41(3):189-94.


Phan J, Sio TT, Nguyen TP, et. al. Reirradiation of Head and Neck Cancers With Proton Therapy: Outcomes and Analyses. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 Sep 1;96(1):30-41.


Adeberg S, Harrabi SB, Bougatf N, et. al. Intensity-modulated proton therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and 3D conformal radiotherapy in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma : A dosimetric comparison. Strahlenther Onkol. 2016 Nov;192(11):770-779.


Mondlane G, Gubanski M, Lind PA, et. al. Comparative study of the calculated risk of radiation-induced cancer after photon- and proton-beam based radiosurgery of liver metastases. Phys Med. 2017 Mar 30. pii: S1120-1797(17)30078-9.


Vogel J, Both S, Kirk M, et al.  Proton therapy for pediatric head and neck malignancies. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;00: e26858.


Vogel, J., Lin, H., Both, S., et. al. Pencil beam scanning proton therapy for treatment of the retroperitoneum after nephrectomy for Wilms tumor: A dosimetric comparison study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017, 64: 39–45.


Farace P, Bizzocchi N, Righetto R, et. al. Supine craniospinal irradiation in pediatric patients by proton pencil beam scanning. Radiother Oncol. 2017 Apr;123(1):112-118.


Giantsoudi D, Seco J, Eaton BR, et. al. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 May 1;98(1):37-46.


Weber DC, Murray FR, Correia D, et. al. Pencil beam scanned protons for the treatment of patients with Ewing sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017 Dec;64(12).


Leiser D, Calaminus G, Malyapa R, et. al. Tumour control and Quality of Life in children with rhabdomyosarcoma treated with pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Radiother Oncol. 2016 Jul;120(1):163-8.


Ares C, Albertini F, Frei-Welte M, et. al. Pencil beam scanning proton therapy for pediatric intracranial ependymoma. J Neurooncol. 2016 May;128(1):137-45.


Geng C, Moteabbed M, Xie Y, et. al. Assessing the radiation-induced second cancer risk in proton therapy for pediatric brain tumors: the impact of employing a patient-specific aperture in pencil beam scanning. Phys Med Biol. 2016 Jan 7;61(1):12-22.


Blanco Kiely JP, White BM. Robust Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Treatment Planning for Rectal Cancer Radiation Therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 May 1;95(1):208-15.

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