Clinical Efficacy of Proton Therapy.

In the treatment of cancer, high doses of radiation are used to destroy cancer cells by damaging their DNA.  When the DNA of a cancer cell is destroyed beyond repair, the cell dies and is then eliminated by the body through natural processes.

Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation treatment that has been used to treat more than 170,000 people worldwide. By 2030, it is estimated that between 300,000 and 600,000 patients will have received proton therapy treatment.

The following are research studies published between 2016 and 2021 that underscore the benefits of proton therapy for certain cancer patients. The majority of the studies employ pencil beam scanning, the most precise form of proton therapy.

ProTom’s Radiance 330® Proton Therapy System employs Fidelity Beam Scanning.  This pencil-beam scanning technology with gating capability enables the highest treatment precision.


Garces Y, Remmes N, et, al. Retrospective Review of Patients With Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices Treated With Spot Scanning Proton Therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 111, Issue 3, Supplement, 1 November 2021, Page e499.doi:

Loizeau N., Fabiano S., Optimal allocation of proton therapy slots in combined proton-photon radiotherapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2021 April 20; doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.03.054.

Li G, Qui B, et. al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of proton beam therapy for treatment decision making in paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancers in China.BMC Cancer. 2020 June26.

B. Baumann, N. Mitra, J. Harton, et. al. Comparative Effectiveness of Proton vs Photon Therapy as Part of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cancer.JAMA Oncol. 2019 Dec 26.

Yuan TZ, Zhan ZJ, Qian CN. New frontiers in proton therapy: applications in cancers.Cancer Comun (Lond). 2019 Oct 22; 39(1):61.

Gao M, Mohiuddin MM, Hartsell WF, et. al. Spatially fractionated (GRID) radiation therapy using proton pencil beam scanning (PBS): Feasibility study and clinical implementation. Med Phys. 2018 Apr;45(4):1645-1653.

Carter R, Nickson C, et. al. Complex DNA Damage Induced by High Linear Energy Transfer Alpha-Particles and Protons Triggers a Specific Cellular DNA Damage Response. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Mar 1; 100(3):776-784.

Bright SJ, Flint DB, Chakraborty, et. al. Non-homologous end joining is more important than proton linear energy transfer in dictating cell death.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Aug 16.

Giantsoudi D, Adams J, MacDonald S, Paganetti H. Can differences in linear energy transfer and thus relative biological effectiveness compromise the dosimetric advantage of intensity-modulated proton therapy as compared to passively scattered proton therapy?Acta Oncol. 2018 May 4:1-6.


Hisashi Yamaguchi, Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu, Haruko Numajiri et al. The Japanese nationwide cohort data of proton beam therapy for liver oligometastasis in breast cancer patients, 25 April 2023, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square []

Brooks E, Vega R and et, al. Proton Therapy for Bilateral Breast Cancer Maximizes Normal-Tissue SparingInt J Part Ther 2023; doi:

Lalani N, Alqarni S, Jimenez RB, et. al. The Potential of Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Clinical and Technical ConsiderationsCurrent Oncology. 2023 Feb 28; 30(3):2869-2878.

Hassan MZO, Awadalla M, et al. Serial Measurement of Global Longitudinal Strain among Women with Breast Cancer treated with Proton Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Trial for 70 Patients. Radiation Oncology. Published 2022 August 23. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2022.08.036

S Fattahi, TC Mullikin, et al. Proton therapy for the treatment of inflammatory breast cancer,Radiotherapy and Oncology. Volume 171, 2022, Pages 77-83, ISSN 0167-8140,

Ishikawa, Y., Suzuki, M., et al. Successful treatment with proton beam therapy for a solitary sternal metastasis of breast cancer: a case reportJ Med Case Reports 16111 (2022).

Garda AE, Hunzeker AE, et al. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for bilateral breast/chest wall and comprehensive nodal irradiation for synchronous bilateral breast cancer: initial clinical experience and dosimetric comparison. Advances in Radiation Oncology, 2022,100901, ISSN 2452-1094,

Boersma LJ, Sattler MGA, et al. Model-Based Selection for Proton Therapy in Breast Cancer: Development of the National Indication Protocol for Proton Therapy and First Clinical Experiences. Clinical Oncology, Jan 5 2022, ISSN 0936-6555,

R Lin, J. Shan., Dosimetric comparison of intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy versus intensity-modulated photon-based radiotherapy for breast cancer. Vis Cancer Med, Volume 2, 5 2021. Doi:

Cartechini G, Fracchiolla F, et, al. Proton pencil beam scanning reduces secondary cancer risk in breast cancer patients with internal mammary chain involvement compared to photon radiotherapy. Radiation Oncology 15: 228. 2020 Oct 02.

Justin E Bekelman, Hien Lu, Stephanie Pugh. et. al. Pragmatic randomised clinical trial of proton versus photon therapy for patients with non-metastatic breast cancer: the Radiotherapy Comparative Effectiveness (RadComp) Consortium trial protocol.BMJ Open. 2019; 9(10): e025556.

D. Pasalic, E.A. Strom, P.K. Allen, et, al. Prospectively Assessed Outcomes for Proton Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): S193

J.A. Bradley1, X. Liang, M.S. Rutenberg, et, al. Three Year Outcomes of Proton Therapy for Regional Nodal Irradiation in Breast Cancer.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E1

J.R. Niska, C.S. Thorpe, J. Anderson, et, al. Post-Mastectomy Radiotherapy using Proton Beam Therapy: Prospective Multi-Institutional PCG Registry Analysis.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E6

I.J. Choi, K. Prabhu Jr., W.F. Hartsell, et, al. Clinical Outcomes after Proton Partial-Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: 3-Year Outcomes of a Phase II Trial.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E19

C.S. Thorpe, J.R. Niska, J. Anderson, et, al.Proton Beam Therapy after Breast-Conserving Surgery for Breast Cancer: Multi-institutional Prospective PCG Registry Analysis.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E35

Speleers B, Belosi FM, et. al. Comparison of supine or prone crawl photon or proton breast and regional lymph node radiation therapy including the internal mammary chain. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 18;9(1):4755.

Leo L, Cuaron et al.Early outcomes of breast cancer patients treated with post-mastectomy uniform scanning proton therapy.Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2018.

Smith N, Jethwa KR, et. al. Early Toxicity and Patient Reported Outcomes of Post-Mastectomy Pencil-Beam Scanning Proton Therapy in Women with Immediate Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Nov. 102(suppl 3): e573–e574.

Stick L, Yu J, et. al. Joint Estimation of Cardiac Toxicity and Recurrence Risks After Comprehensive Nodal Photon Versus Proton Therapy for Breast Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Mar 15;97(4):754-761.

Bradley JA, Dagan R, et. al. Initial Report of a Prospective Dosimetric and Clinical Feasibility Trial Demonstrates the Potential of Protons to Increase the Therapeutic Ratio in Breast Cancer Compared With Photons.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 May 1;95(1):411-21.

Jimenez RB, Hickey S, DePauw N, et. al. Phase II Study of Proton Beam Radiation Therapy for Patients With Breast Cancer Requiring Regional Nodal Irradiation.J Clin Oncol. 2019 Aug 26.


Hanna Ek, Ingrid Fagerström Kristensen, et al. Transitioning from conventional photon therapy to proton therapy for primary brain tumorsActa Oncologica. 62:4, 391-399. Published 2023 May 18.  DOI: 10.1080/0284186X.2023.2200150

Hiroshima Y, Ishikawa H, Sumiya T, et al. Clinical Impact of Proton Beam Therapy for Postoperative Lymph Node Oligorecurrence of Esophageal CancerIn Vivo. 2023;37(3):1253-1259. doi:10.21873/invivo.13202

Mavrikios, A,  Goudjil, F,  Beddok, A, et al.  Proton therapy and/or helical tomotherapy for locally advanced sinonasal skull base adenoid cystic carcinoma: Focus on experience of the Institut Curie and review of literature. Head & Neck.  2023; 1- 13. doi:10.1002/hed.27371

Yahya, N.; Manan, H.A. Quality of Life and Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Proton Therapy for Oropharyngeal Carcinoma: A Systematic Review. Cancers 2023, 15, 2252.

Petruccelli A, Parent A and et, al. Estimating Potential Benefits to Neurocognition with Proton Therapy in Adults with Brain Tumors. Int J Part Ther 2023; doi:

Press RH, Hu L, et al. Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) for a Novel Oral Tongue Avoidance Concept in Low-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue. Int J Part Ther. 2023 Feb 16; DOI:

Lee A, Woods R, Mahfouz A, et al. Evaluation of Proton Therapy Reirradiation for Patients With Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6(1):e2250607. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.50

Rutenberg MS, Hoppe BS, et al. Proton Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Thoracic Esophageal Cancer: Toxicity, Disease Control, and Survival Outcomes. Int J Part Ther 2022; doi:

Held, T., Franke, H., Lang, K. et al. Intensity modulated proton therapy for early-stage glottic cancer: high-precision approach to laryngeal function preservation with exceptional treatment tolerabilityRadiat Oncol 17, 199 2022; doi:

Youssef I, Yoon J, Mohamed N, et al. Toxicity Profiles and Survival Outcomes Among Patients With Nonmetastatic Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy vs Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(11):e2241538. Published 2022 Nov 1. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.41538

Lertbutsayanukul C, Kitpanit S, Kannarunimit D, et al. High-dose Intensity-modulated proton therapy versus Standard-dose Intensity-modulated Radiation therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HI-SIRI): study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. Trials. 2022;23(1):897. Published 2022 Oct 22. doi:10.1186/s13063-022-06822-8

Sapna Nangia, Utpal Gaikwad, Noufal MP et al. Proton therapy & oral mucositis in oral & oropharyngeal cancers: outcomes, dosimetric & NTCP benefit. Research Square. 2022 September 08.

Gollrad J, Boeker A, Vitzthum S et al. Proton therapy for 166 patients with iris melanoma: side effects and oncological outcome. Ophthalmology Retina.2022, ISSN 2468-6530,

Solidum JGN, Rojo RD, Wo JY, Dee EC. Proton Beam Therapy for Esophageal Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(16):4045. Published 2022 Aug 22. doi:10.3390/cancers14164045

Gerard A, Peyrichon ML, Vidal M, et al. Ocular proton therapy, pencil beam scanning high energy proton therapy or stereotactic radiotherapy for uveal melanoma; an in silico study. Cancer/Radiothérapie, 2022, ISSN 1278-3218, doi: 10.1016/j.canrad.2022.03.003.

Han JE, Lozano A, Hasan S, et al. Proton Therapy Outcomes for Head and Neck Cutaneous Melanoma: Proton Collaborative Group Analysis. Int J Part Ther (2022); Published 2022 July 6. Doi: 10.14338/IJPT-22-00003.1

Lin SH, Liao K, Lei X, et al. Health Care Resource Utilization for Esophageal Cancer Using Proton versus Photon Radiation TherapyInt J Part Ther. 2022;9(1):18-27. Published 2022 Jun 23. doi:10.14338/IJPT-22-00001.1

E Fleuryab, P Trnková, et al. Improving Organs-at-Risk Sparing for Choroidal Melanoma Patients: A CT-based Two-Beam Strategy in Ocular Proton Therapy with a Dedicated Eyeline. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 27 April 2022. doi:

Patel, S.H. , Ma D.J., et al. A Prospective Study of Mucosal Sparing Proton Beam Therapy in Resected Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 112, Issue 5, e13 – e14,

Takahiro K, Takashi O, et, al. Dose–volume comparison of intensity modulated proton therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy for cervical esophageal cancer, Medical Dosimetry, 2022, ISSN 0958-3947.

Press, R.H., Hu L, et, al. Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) for Novel Oral Tongue Avoidance Concept in Low-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 112, Issue 5, e24 – e25,

Scandurra D, Meijer TWH, et, al. Evaluation of robustly optimised intensity modulated proton therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiother Oncol. 2022 Feb 5;168:221-228. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2022.01.043.

Wu PW, Huang CC, Lee YS, et al. Post-Irradiation Sinus Mucosa Disease in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated with Intensity-Modulated Proton TherapyCancers (Basel). 2022;14(1):225. Published 2022 Jan 4. doi:10.3390/cancers14010225

Sheikh, Saad MD; Kharouta, Michael Z. MD, et al. Proton Beam Therapy for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Tumors.American Journal of Clinical Oncology: December 08, 2021 – Volume – Issue – doi: 10.1097/COC.0000000000000883

Scher N, Bentahila G, et, al. Proton Therapy for Adult Craniopharyngioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 111, Issue 3, Supplement, 1 November 2021, Page e561.doi:

Hung HM, Chan OCM, et, al. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy and intensity modulated proton therapy in the treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Medical Dosimetry, August 29,2021. doi:

Y.H. Lin, J.Y. Cheng., Significant Reduction in Vertebral Artery Dose by Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: A Pilot Study for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 822;

Chou YC., Fan KH., et, al. Intensity Modulated Proton Beam Therapy versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Patients with Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matched Study.Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jul 16;13(14):3555.doi: 10.3390/cancers13143555.

Thaker NG, Boyce-Fappiano D, et al. Activity-Based Costing of Intensity-Modulated Proton versus Photon Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer. Int J Part Ther. 2021 Jun 25;8(1):374-382.doi: 10.14338/IJPT-20-00042.1.

Li XZ, Kitpanit S,et al. Toxicity Profiles and Survival Outcomes Among Patients With Nonmetastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy vs Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy.JAMA Netw Open.June 18, 2021;4(6):e2113205. doi:10.1001.

Williams M.V., Parvathaneni U., Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Nasopharynx Cancer: 2-year Outcomes from a Single Institution.Int J Part Ther (2021); doi:10.14338/IJPT-20-00057.1.

Nguyen M, Cantrell N, Athmad S, Henson C. Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of head and neck cancer: A dosimetric comparison. Medical Dosimetry. 2021 Feb 26.

Brodin NP, Kabarriti, Individualized quality of life benefit and cost-effectiveness estimates of proton therapy for patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Radiat Oncol. 2021 Jan 21. Doi: 10.1186/s13014-021-01745-1.

Pelak M, Walser M, et. al. Clinical outcomes of head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma patients treated with pencil beam-scanning proton therapy. Oral Oncol. Volume 107, 2020 Aug; 104752.

Fan M, Kang JJ, Lee A, Outcomes and toxicities of definitive radiotherapy and reirradiation using 3‐dimensional conformal or intensity‐modulated (pencil beam) proton therapy for patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinus malignancies.ACS J. 2020 Feb 25.

G.L. Smith, M.S. Ning, et, al.Impact of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy vs. Intensity-Modulated Photon Therapy on Preserving Work and Productivity in Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients: Outcomes of a Multi-Institution Randomized Trial.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E427-E428

H. Bahig, A.S. Garden,G.B. Gunn, et, al. Head and Neck Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Focus on Outcomes of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E432

H. Minatogawa, K. Yasuda,T. Matsuura, et, al. The Potential Benefit of Adaptive Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Planning Comparison Study.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E394

V.M. Williams, B. Sasidharan, S. Aljabab, et, al. Proton Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Early Clinical Outcomes From a Single Institution.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E397

H. Bahig, G.B. Gunn,A.S. Garden, et, al. Toxicity and Pharyngeal Dysphagia Outcomes from Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Cancer.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E410

G.B. Gunn, A.S. Garden, R. Ye, et, al. Clinical Outcomes after Proton Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A 12 Year Single Institution Experience.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E373

M. Shuja, D.M. Routman, R.L. Foote, et, al. Clinical Outcomes after Re-irradiation in Recurrent Head and Neck Cancers treated with Intensity Modulated Proton and Photon Therapies.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E382- E383

Pearlstein KA, Wang K, Amdur RJ. Quality of Life for Patients With Favorable-Risk HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer After De-intensified Chemoradiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Mar 1;103(3):646-653.

Moreno A, Frank S, et. al. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) – The future of IMRT for head and neck cancer. Oral Oncology. 2018 Jan 88:66-74

Sharma S, Zhou O, Thompson R, et. al. Quality of Life of Postoperative Photon versus Proton Radiation Therapy for Oropharynx Cancer. International Journal of Particle Therapy. 2018. In-Press.

Gu W, O’Connor D, Nguyen D, et. al. Integrated beam orientation and scanning-spot optimization in intensity-modulated proton therapy for brain and unilateral head and neck tumors. Med Phys. 2018 Apr;45(4):1338-1350.

De Felice F, Polimeni A, et. al. Radiotherapy Controversies and Prospective in Head and Neck Cancer: A Literature-Based Critical Review. Neoplasia. 2018; 20(3): 227-232.

Langendijk JA, Steenbakkers RJ. Optimizing Radiotherapy in HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients.Recent Results Cancer Res. 2017;206:161-171. Review.

Apinorasethkul O, Kirk M, et al. Pencil beam scanning proton therapy vs rotational arc radiation therapy: A treatment planning comparison for postoperative oropharyngeal cancerMedical Dosimetry. 2017; 42 (1): 7-11.

Zhang W, Zhang X, Yang P, er. al. Intensity-modulated proton therapy and osteoradionecrosis in oropharyngeal cancer.Radiother Oncol. 2017 Jun;123(3):401-405.

van Dijk LV, Steenbakkers RJ, ten Haken B, et. al. Robust Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Increases Estimated Clinical Benefit in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.PLoS One. 2016 Mar 31;11(3):e0152477.

Sio TT, Lin HK, Shi Q, et. al. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Photon Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: First Comparative Results of Patient-Reported Outcomes.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 Jul 15;95(4):1107-14.

Blanchard P, Garden AS, Gunn GB, et. al. Intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (IMPT) versus intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT) for patients with oropharynx cancer – A case matched analysis.Radiother Oncol. 2016 Jul;120(1):48-55.

McKeever MR, Sio TT, Gunn GB, et. al. Reduced acute toxicity and improved efficacy from intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for the management of head and neck cancer.Chin Clin Oncol. 2016 Aug;5(4):54.

Holliday EB, Kocak-Uzel E, Feng L, et. al. Dosimetric advantages of intensity-modulated proton therapy for oropharyngeal cancer compared with intensity-modulated radiation: A case-matched control analysis.Med Dosim. 2016 Autumn;41(3):189-94.

Phan J, Sio TT, Nguyen TP, et. al. Reirradiation of Head and Neck Cancers With Proton Therapy: Outcomes and Analyses.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 Sep 1;96(1):30-41.


S Nangia, U Gaikwad, et, al. Proton therapy for skull-base adenoid cystic carcinomas: A case series and review of literature. J Can Res. April 1st, 2022. Doi: 10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_1236_21

Gordon, K., Gulidov, I., Koryakin, S. et al. Proton therapy with a fixed beamline for skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas: outcomes and toxicity. Radiat Oncol 16, 238 (2021).

Kroeze S.G.C, Mackeorang PH, et, al. A Prospective Study on Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adult Brain Tumor Patients Treated with Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Oct; 13(19): 4892. doi: 10.3390/cancers13194892

Kimberley SK, Erik F, et, al. Outcome and Toxicity of Proton Therapy for Vestibular Schwannoma A Cohort Study. Otology & Neurotology. September 17, 2021. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003313

Chambrelant I, Eber J, et, al. Proton Therapy and Gliomas: A Systematic Review. Radiation 2021, 1(3), 218-233;

M Walser, B Bojaxhiu., Clinical Outcome of Sacral Chordoma Patients Treated with Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy.Clinical Oncol, 2021 Aug 02. Doi:

Liu, IC., Holtzman, A.L., Rotondo, R.L. et al. Proton therapy for adult medulloblastoma: Acute toxicity and disease control outcomes. J Neurooncol (2021).

Mohan R, Liu AY , et. al. Proton therapy reduces the likelihood of high-grade radiation-induced lymphopenia in glioblastoma patients: phase II randomized study of protons vs photons.Neuro-Oncology, Volume 23, Issue 2, February 2021, Pages 284–294.

Scartoni D, Amelio D, Palumbo P, et. al. Proton therapy re-irradiation preserves health-related quality of life in large recurrent glioblastoma.J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020 Mar 21.

Iannalfi A, D’lppolito E, Riva G, et. al.  Proton and carbon ions radiotherapy in skull base chordomas: a prospective study based on a dual particle and a patient-customized treatment strategy.Neuro Oncol. 2020 Mar 20. pii: noaa067.

Stross WC,Malouff TD, Waddle MR, et. al. Proton beam therapy utilization in adults with primary brain tumors in the United States.J Clin Neurosci. 2020 Mar 14. pii: S0967-5868(20)30013-8.

M.J. Amsbaugh, E.L. Chang, A. Mahajan, et, al.  Proton Beam Therapy for the Post-Operative Treatment of Skull Base Sarcoma: The Results of Two Phase II Single Arm Protocols.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): S130

C. Lynch, K.G. Petras, W.F. Hartsell, et, al. Proton Therapy for Craniospinal Radiochemotherapy Reduces Myelotoxicity and Improves Chemotherapy Completion in Adult Medulloblastoma.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): S141-S142

Sakthivel V, Ganesh KM, et. al. Second malignant neoplasm risk after craniospinal irradiation in X-ray-based techniques compared to proton therapy. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2019 Feb 6.

Correia D, Terribilini D, et. al. Whole-ventricular irradiation for intracranial germ cell tumors: Dosimetric comparison of pencil beam scanned protons, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy. Clin Transl Radiat Oncol. 2019 Jan 9;15:53-61.

Mercado CE, Holtzman AL, Rotondo R, Rutenberg MS, Mendenhall WM. Proton therapy for skull base tumors: A review of clinical outcomes for chordomas and chondrosarcomas.Head Neck. 2019 Feb;41(2):536-541.

Adeberg S, Harrabi SB, et. al. Dosimetric Comparison of Proton Radiation Therapy, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy, and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Based on Intracranial Tumor Location. Cancers (Basel). 2018 Oct 26;10(11).

Ardenfors O, Dsu A, Lillhök J, et. al. Out-of-field doses from secondary radiation produced in proton therapy and the associated risk of radiation-induced cancer from a brain tumor treatment. Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics. 2018 Sep; 53: 129-136.

Leeman JE, Lee NY, Zhou Y, et. al. Endoscopic Resection Followed by Proton Therapy With Pencil Beam Scanning for Skull Base Tumors. Laryngoscope. 2018 Sep 12.

Murray FR, Snider JW, Bolsi A, et. al. Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Benign and Non-benign Intracranial Meningiomas.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Aug 12.

Weber DC, Malyapa R, Albertini F, et. al. Long term outcomes of patients with skull-base low-grade chondrosarcoma and chordoma patients treated with pencil beam scanning proton therapy.Radiother Oncol. 2016 Jul;120(1):169-74.

Holm AIS, Petersen JBB, Muren LP, et. al. Functional image-guided dose escalation in gliomas using of state-of-the-art photon vs. proton therapy.Acta Oncol. 2017 Jun;56(6):826-831.

Geng C, Moteabbed M, Seco J, et. al. Dose assessment for the fetus considering scattered and secondary radiation from photon and proton therapy when treating a brain tumor of the mother.Phys Med Biol. 2016 Jan 21;61(2):683-95.

Adeberg S, Harrabi SB, Bougatf N, et. al. Intensity-modulated proton therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and 3D conformal radiotherapy in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma : A dosimetric comparison.Strahlenther Onkol. 2016 Nov;192(11):770-779.

Petr J, Platzek l, Hofheinz F, et. al. Photon vs. proton radiochemotherapy: Effects on brain tissue volume and perfusion.Radiother Oncol. 2018 Jul; 128(1):121-127.

Baumann BC, Lustig RA, Mazzoni S, et. al. A prospective clinical trial of proton therapy for chordoma and chondrosarcoma: Feasibility assessment.J Surg Oncol. 2019 Aug; 120(2): 200-205.

Stieb S, Snider JW 3rd, Placidi L, Kliebsch U, Lomax AJ, et. al. Long-Term Clinical Safety of High-Dose Proton Radiation Therapy Delivered With Pencil Beam Scanning Technique for Extracranial Chordomas and Chondrosarcomas in Adult Patients: Clinical Evidence of Spinal Cord Tolerance.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Sep 4.


Marinkovic M, Pors LJ, van den Berg V, et al. Clinical Outcomes after International Referral of Uveal Melanoma Patients for Proton Therapy. Cancers (Basel). 2021;13(24):6241. Published 2021 Dec 13. doi:10.3390/cancers13246241

Biewald E., Kiefer., Feasibility of Proton Beam Therapy as a Rescue Therapy in Heavily Pre-Treated Retinoblastoma Eyes.Cancers (Basel). 2021 Apr; 13(8): 1862.doi: 10.3390/cancers13081862.

J. Thariat, J. Salleron, C. Maschi, et. al. Oncologic and visual outcomes after postoperative proton therapy of localized conjunctival melanomas.Radiat Oncol. 2019 Dec 27; 14: 239.

Scholz SL, Hérault J, et. al. Proton radiotherapy in advanced malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva.Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2019 Mar 27.


Chen MF, Chen PT, Hsieh CC, Wang CC. Effect of Proton Therapy on Tumor Cell Killing and Immune Microenvironment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Cells. 2023;12(2):332. Published 2023 Jan 15. doi:10.3390/cells12020332

Kim TH, Kim BH, Park JW, et al. Proton Beam Therapy for Treatment-Naïve Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Prognostic Significance of Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) Grade. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(18):4445. Published 2022 Sep 13. doi:10.3390/cancers14184445

Dionisi F, Scartoni D, Fracchiolla F, et al. Proton therapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Front Oncol. 2022;12:959552. Published 2022 Aug 8. doi:10.3389/fonc.2022.959552

R.S. Bhangoo, T.C. Mullikin., Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Initial Clinical Experience.Adv Radiat Oncol. 2021 Mar 2;6(4):100675.Doi: 10.1016/j.adro.2021.100675.

M Moteabbed, J Smeets., Toward MR-integrated proton therapy: modeling the potential benefits for liver tumors.Phys Med Biol. 2021 Aug 18. Doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/ac1ef2.

Iwata H, Ogino H, Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Elderly Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: High Local Control and Quality of Life Preservation. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jan; 13(2): 219. doi: 10.3390/cancers13020219

Chuong M, Kaiser A, Molitoris J, et. al. Proton beam therapy for liver cancers.J Gastrointest Oncol. 2020 Feb; 11(1): 157–165.

Shaakir Hasan, Stephen Abel, Vivek Verma. et. al. Proton beam therapy versus stereotactic body radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: practice patterns, outcomes, and the effect of biologically effective dose escalation.J Gastrointest Oncol. 2019 Oct; 10(5): 999-1009.

Mondlane G, Gubanski M, Lind PA, et. al. Comparative study of the calculated risk of radiation-induced cancer after photon- and proton-beam based radiosurgery of liver metastases. Phys Med. 2017 Mar 30. pii: S1120-1797(17)30078-9.



Nakamura M, Ishikawa H, Ohnishi K, et al. Effects of lymphopenia on survival in proton therapy with chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancerJournal of Radiation Research, 2023;, rrac084,

Suh YG, Noh JM, Lee DY, et al. Proton Beam Therapy versus Photon Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(15):3627. Published 2022 Jul 26. doi:10.3390/cancers14153627

Oonsiri S, Kitpanit S, et al. Comparison of intensity modulated proton therapy beam configurations for treating thoracic esophageal cancer. Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2022;22:51-56. Published 2022 Apr 28. doi:10.1016/j.phro.2022.04.005

König L, Hörner-Rieber J, et al. Secondary Malignancy Risk Following Proton vs. X-ray Radiotherapy of Thymic Epithelial Tumors: A Comparative Modeling Study of Thoracic Organ-Specific Cancer Risk. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(10):2409. Published 2022 May 13. doi:10.3390/cancers14102409

Noh, J.M., Yoo, H, et, al. Prospective Study of Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer Patients with Poor Lung Function or Pulmonary FibrosisCancers 2022, 14, 1445.

Mohindra P, Saeed A, et, al. Toxicity and Survival Outcomes From Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy-Based Re-Irradiation in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics. Volume 112, Issue 2, E4-E5. Feb 01, 2022. Doi:I:

Bayasgalan U, Moon SH, et al. Dosimetric Comparisons between Proton Beam Therapy and Modern Photon Radiation Techniques for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer According to Tumor Location. Cancers (Basel). 2021;13(24):6356. Published 2021 Dec 17. doi:10.3390/cancers13246356

Köthe A, Bizzocchi A, et,al. Investigating the potential of proton therapy for hypoxia-targeted dose escalation in non-small cell lung cancer. Radiat Oncol. 2021; 16: 199. Published online 2021 Oct 11. doi: 10.1186/s13014-021-01914-2

Kim N, Noh JM, Lee W, Park B, Pyo H.Clinical Outcomes of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Propensity Score Analysis. Cancers. 2021; 13(14):3497.

Nagata I, Ogino T, Arimura T, Yoshiura T. Clinical Outcomes of Proton Beam Therapy for Ground-Glass Opacity-Type Lung Cancer. Lung Cancer (Auckl). 2020;11:105-111

P. Mohindra, S. Mossahebi, J.M. Moreau, et, al. First Clinical Experience of Gated Voluntary Breath-Hold Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Thoracic Malignancies.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): S252

Rice SR, Saboury B, et. al. Quantification of global lung inflammation using volumetric 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy: a comparison of photon and proton radiation therapy. Nucl Med Commun. 2019 Jun;40(6):618-625.

Chen J, Lu JL, et. al. Early stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with pencil beam scanning particle therapy: retrospective analysis of early results on safety and efficacy.Radiat Oncol. 2019 Jan 25;14:16.

Kim H, Pyo H, Noh JM, et. al. Preliminary result of definitive radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who have underlying idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: comparison between X-ray and proton therapy.Radiat Oncol. 2019 Jan 28;14(1):19.

Liu C, Sio TT, et. al. Small-spot intensity-modulated proton therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapies for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A dosimetric comparative study.J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2018 Oct 17.

Huang Q, Jabbour SK, Xiao Z, et. al. Dosimetric feasibility of 4DCT-ventilation imaging guided proton therapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Radiat Oncol. 2018 Apr 25;13(1):78.

Lee E, Zeng J, Miyaoka RS, et. al. Functional lung avoidance and response-adaptive escalation (FLARE) RT: Multimodality plan dosimetry of a precision radiation oncology strategy.Med Phys. 2017 Jul;44(7):3418-3429.

Ho JC, Nguyen QN, Li H, et. al. Reirradiation of thoracic cancers with intensity modulated proton therapy. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2018 Jan – Feb;8(1):58-65.

Diwanji TP, Mohindra P, Vyfhuis M, et. al. Advances in radiotherapy techniques and delivery for non-small cell lung cancer: benefits of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, proton therapy, and stereotactic body radiation therapy.Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2017 Apr;6(2):131-147.

Daniel R. Gomez, Andreas Rimner, The Use of Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Expert Opinion from the National Cancer Institute Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Mesothelioma Applied ReJ Thorac Oncol. 2019 Jul; 14(7):1172-1183.


Hotsinpiller WS, Clark AR, et al. Trends and Predictors of Proton Therapy Utilization in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: A National Cancer Database Analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2784| Volume 114, ISSUE 3, Supplement, E351, November 01, 2022. DOI:

Moreno AC, Gunther JR, et. al. Impact of Deep Inspiration Breath Hold on Normal Tissue Sparing with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy versus Proton Therapy for Mediastinal Lymphoma.Advances Radiation Onco. 2020 Aug 25.

Konig L, Haering P, et. al. Secondary Malignancy Risk Following Proton vs. X-ray Treatment of Mediastinal Malignant Lymphoma: A Comparative Modeling Study of Thoracic Organ-Specific Cancer Risk.Front Oncol. 2020 Jul 7.

Scorsetti M, Cozzi L, et, al. Intensity modulated proton therapy compared to volumetric modulated arc therapy in the irradiation of young female patients with hodgkin’s lymphoma. Assessment of risk of toxicity and secondary cancer induction.Radiat Oncol, 2020 Jan 13.

Ashlyn S Everett, Bardford S Hoppe, Debbie Louis. et. al. Comparison of Techniques for Involved-Site Radiation Therapy in Patients with Lower Mediastinal Lymphoma.Pract Radiat Oncol. 2019 Oct May 22.

Ntentas G, Dedeckova K, et. al. Clinical intensity-modulated proton therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma: which patients benefit the most? Pract Radiat Oncol. 2019 Jan 29. pii: S1879-8500(19)30007-4.

Zeng C, Plastaras J, et. al. Proton pencil beam scanning for mediastinal lymphoma: treatment planning and robustness assessment Acta Oncologica 2016; 55 (9-10)



Myrsini Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Andrzej Niemierko, et al. Surgery and proton radiation therapy for pediatric base of skull chordomas: Long-term clinical outcomes for 204 patientsNeuro-Oncology, 2023;, noad068,

Hill-Kayser CE, Vogel J, et al. Conformal Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Delivery of Flank Radiation in Children with Renal Tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 228| Volume 114, ISSUE 3, Supplement, S71-S72, November 01, 2022. DOI:

M.J. LaRiviere, James P, et al. Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) Proton Therapy for Children Requiring Radiotherapy with Anesthesia (GA) for Pelvic Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 3090| Volume 114, ISSUE 3, Supplement, E489-E490, November 01, 2022. DOI:

Liu Y, Cheng H, et al. Mandible Osteoradionecrosis and Asymmetry in Pediatric Patients Treated with Proton Therapy for Head and Neck Malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 3073| Volume 114, ISSUE 3, Supplement, E481, November 01, 2022. DOI:

Fortune IV EC, Indelicato DJ, et al. Outcomes Following Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Salivary Gland Tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 3068| Volume 114, ISSUE 3, Supplement, E479, November 01, 2022.DOI:

Upadhyay R, Yadav D, Venkatesulu BP, et al. Risk of secondary malignant neoplasms in children following proton therapy vs. photon therapy for primary CNS tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Oncol. 2022;12:893855. Published 2022 Aug 12. doi:10.3389/fonc.2022.893855

Ruggi A, Melchionda F, Sardi I, et al. Toxicity and Clinical Results after Proton Therapy for Pediatric Medulloblastoma: A Multi-Centric Retrospective Study. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(11):2747. Published 2022 Jun 1. doi:10.3390/cancers14112747

Bachmann N, Vazquez M, Bolsi A, et al. RONC-02. Clinical outcome after craniospinal irradiation with pencil beam scanning proton therapy for children and young adults/adolescents with brain tumors. Neuro Oncol.2022;24(Suppl 1):i176. Published 2022 Jun 3. doi:10.1093/neuonc/noac079.656

Vennarini, S., Del Baldo, G, et, al. Acute Hematological Toxicity during Cranio-Spinal Proton Therapy in Pediatric Brain Embryonal Tumors. Cancers 2022, 14, 1653.

Christopher R. Weil, MD, Felicia H. Lew, DVM, et, al. Patterns of Care and Utilization Disparities in Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Central Nervous System Malignancies. Radiat Oncol. Feb 15, 2022. Doi:

S Peters, Majer M, Ambrožová l, et al. Out-of-field doses in pediatric craniospinal irradiations with 3D-CRT, VMAT and scanning proton radiotherapy – a phantom study. Med. Phys.. (2022), Accepted Author Manuscript.

Tringale RK, Modin AL, et al. Vital organ sparing with proton therapy for pediatric hodgkin lymphoma: Toxicity and outcomes in 50 patients. Radiother Oncol. Jan 27, 2022. DOI:

S Peters, J Merta, L Schmidt, et al. Evaluation of dose, volume and outcome in children with localized, intracranial ependymoma treated with proton therapy within the prospective KiProReg Study. Neuro-Oncology, 2021; noab301,

Cunningham D, Zaniletti I, et, al. Lymphopenia in Pediatric Patients Following Proton Radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 111, Issue 3, Supplement, 1 November 2021, Page e173.doi:

Upadhyay R, Grosshans D.R, et,al. Quantifying the Risk and Dosimetric Variables of Symptomatic Brainstem Injury After Proton Beam Radiation in Pediatric Brain Tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 111, Issue 3, Supplement, 1 November 2021, Pages S82-S83. doi:

Indelicato DJ, Ioakeim-Ioannidou M, et, al.  Bicentric Treatment Outcomes following Proton Therapy for Non-Myxopapillary High-Grade Spinal Cord Ependymoma in Children. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. September 28,2021. doi:

R Suzuki, H Fukushinma., Proton beam therapy with concurrent chemotherapy is feasible in children with newly diagnosed rhabdomyosarcoma.Rep Pract Oncol Radiother. 2021 Aug 12;26(4):616-625.

Eaton B.R., Fong G.W., et al. Intellectual functioning among case-matched cohorts of children treated with proton or photon radiation for standard-risk medulloblastoma.Cancer. 13 July 2021.

Bates JE, Terezakis S, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Proton Therapy versus Photon Radiotherapy in Adolescents and Young Adults for Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.Int J Part Ther(2021).

Taylor S, Lim P, et al. Risk of radiation-induced second malignant neoplasms from photon and proton radiotherapy in pediatric abdominal neuroblastoma.Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2021 Jul 9; 19: 45-52.doi: 10.1016/j.phro.2021.06.003.

Gallagher KJ, Youssef B, et. al. Proton Radiotherapy Could Reduce the Risk of Fatal Second Cancers for Children with Intracranial Tumors in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Int J Part Ther (2021).

Looi WS, Indelicato DJ, Mailhot Vega RB, Morris CG, Sandler E, Aldana PR, Bradley JA. Outcomes following limited-volume proton therapy for multifocal spinal myxopapillary ependymoma.Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2020 Nov 23:e28820. doi: 10.1002/pbc.28820. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33226179.

Acharya, Sahaja et al.  Adaptive Proton Therapy for Pediatric Patients: Improving the Quality of the Delivered Plan With On-Treatment MRI.  International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, October 28, 2020

YazdiH, Meadows R. Child Proton Beam Therapy: a qualitative study of parental views on treatment and information sources.Surrey Research Insight, 2020.

Boilk N, Hall M, et. al. Psychosocial Support for Pediatric Patients at Proton Therapy Institutions.Int J Part Ther, 2020

Uezono H, Indelicato D, et. al. Treatment Outcomes Following Proton Therapy for Ewing Sarcoma of the Pelvis.Radiation Oncol. 2020 May 10.

Greenberger BA, Yock TI. The role of proton therapy in pediatric malignancies: Recent advances and future directions.Semin Oncol. 2020 Feb 21. pii: S0093-7754(20)30002-6.

Indelicato D, Rotondo R, et. al. Outcomes following Proton Therapy for Group III Pelvic Rhabdomyosarcoma.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2020 Jan24.

Sardaro A, Carbonara R, Petruzzelli M, et. al. Proton therapy in the most common pediatric non-central nervous system malignancies: an overview of clinical and dosimetric outcomes. Ital J Pediatr. 2019 Dec 27; 45:170.

H. Kim, T. Kim, J. Jung, The regression patterns of pediatric optic pathway glioma after Proton Beam Therapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Nov 15; 105 (4): E912.

R. Frakulli, S. Nagaraja, T. Steinmeier, et. al. Early ototoxicity in children after craniospinal irradiation using pencil beam proton therapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Nov 15; 105 (4): E912.

S.M. Kharod, D.J. Indelicato, R.L. Rotondo, et, al. Outcomes Following Proton Therapy for Ewing Sarcoma of the Cranium and Skull Base.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E635

M. Ioakeim-Ioannidou,K.X. Liu,et, al. A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Proton and Photon Therapy-Induced Hematologic Toxicity in Medulloblastoma Patients.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Sep 1; 105 (1): E625-E626

Hashimoto T, Shimizu S, et. al. Clinical experience of craniospinal intensity-modulated spot-scanning proton therapy using large fields for central nervous system medulloblastomas and germ cell tumors in children, adolescents, and young adults. J Radiation Res. 2019 May 21; pii: rrz022.

Sakthivel V, Ganesh KM, et. al. Second malignant neoplasm risk after craniospinal irradiation in X-ray-based techniques compared to proton therapy. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2019 Feb 6.

Hill-Kayser CE, Tochner Z, et. al. Outcomes after Proton Therapy for Treatment of Pediatric High-Risk Neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Feb 7. pii: S0360-3016(19)30190-7.

Journy N, Indelicato D, Withrow D, et. al. Patterns of proton therapy use in pediatric cancer management in 2016: An international survey. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2018. In Press.

Huynh M, Marcu LG, Giles E, et. al. Current status of proton therapy outcome for paediatric cancers of the central nervous system – Analysis of the published literature.Cancer Treat Rev. 2018 Nov;70:272-288.

Arscott WT, Cope C. et. al. Proton Therapy for Management of Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma Involving the Mediastinum: Evaluation of Toxicity and Evolution of Therapy Over 7 Years of Experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Nov. 102(suppl 3): S53-S54.

Ladra MM, MacDonald SM, Terezakis SA. Proton therapy for central nervous system tumors in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 Jul;65(7):e27046.

Pulsifer MB, Duncanson H, Grieco J, et al. Cognitive and Adaptive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation for Pediatric Patients with Brain Tumors.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018.

Haas-Kogan D, Indelicato D, Paganetti H, et. al. National Cancer Institute Workshop on Proton Therapy for Children: Considerations Regarding Brainstem Injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 May 1;101(1):152-168.

Bojaxhiu B, Ahlhelm F, Walser M, et. al. Radiation Necrosis and White Matter Lesions in Pediatric Patients With Brain Tumors Treated With Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Mar 15;100(4):987-996.

Vogel J, Both S, Kirk M, et al.  Proton therapy for pediatric head and neck malignancies. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;00: e26858.

Vogel, J., Lin, H., Both, S., et. al. Pencil beam scanning proton therapy for treatment of the retroperitoneum after nephrectomy for Wilms tumor: A dosimetric comparison study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017, 64: 39–45.

Farace P, Bizzocchi N, Righetto R, et. al. Supine craniospinal irradiation in pediatric patients by proton pencil beam scanning.Radiother Oncol. 2017 Apr;123(1):112-118.

Giantsoudi D, Seco J, Eaton BR, et. al. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 May 1;98(1):37-46.

Weber DC, Murray FR, Correia D, et. al. Pencil beam scanned protons for the treatment of patients with Ewing sarcoma.Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017 Dec;64(12).

Leiser D, Calaminus G, Malyapa R, et. al. Tumour control and Quality of Life in children with rhabdomyosarcoma treated with pencil beam scanning proton therapy.Radiother Oncol. 2016 Jul;120(1):163-8.

Ares C, Albertini F, Frei-Welte M, et. al. Pencil beam scanning proton therapy for pediatric intracranial ependymoma.J Neurooncol. 2016 May;128(1):137-45.

Geng C, Moteabbed M, Xie Y, et. al. Assessing the radiation-induced second cancer risk in proton therapy for pediatric brain tumors: the impact of employing a patient-specific aperture in pencil beam scanning.Phys Med Biol. 2016 Jan 7;61(1):12-22.

Doyen J, Jazmati D, Geismar D, et. al. Outcome and patterns of relapse in childhood parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma treated with proton beam therapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Aug 13


Schmid MP, Harrabi S, Herfarth K, et al. Particle Therapy in Adult Patients with Pelvic Ewing Sarcoma-Tumor and Treatment Characteristics and Early Clinical Outcomes. Cancers (Basel). 2022;14(24):6045. Published 2022 Dec 8. doi:10.3390/cancers14246045

Sosa AJ, Choi S, et al. Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Clinical Outcomes at a Comprehensive Cancer Center. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2552| Volume 114, ISSUE 3, Supplement, E247-E248, November 01, 2022. DOI:

Chilukuri S, Sundar S, Patro K, et al. Comparison of Estimated Late Toxicities between IMPT and IMRT Based on Multivariable NTCP Models for High-Risk Prostate Cancers Treated with Pelvic Nodal Radiation. Int J Part Ther. 2022;9(1):42-53. Published 2022 Jun 13. doi:10.14338/IJPT-21-00042.1

Yoshimura T, Nishioka K, et, al. A treatment planning study of urethra-sparing intensity-modulated proton therapy for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Volume 20, October 2021, Pages 23-29. doi:

Bryant M. C., Henderson H. R., Consensus Statement on Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer.Int J Part Ther (2021); doi:10.14338/IJPT-20-00031.

Dutz A, Agolli L, et. al. Early and late side effects, dosimetric parameters and quality of life after proton beam therapy and IMRT for prostate cancer: a matched-pair analysis. Acta Oncol. 2019 Mar 18:1-10.

Wang CJ, Guarisco. Prospective Safety and Patient-Reported Quality-of-Life Outcome for Prostate Cancer Treated with Image-Guided Compact Pencil-Beam Proton Unit. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Nov. 102(suppl 3): e148.

Ong A, Ang, KW, et. al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for whole pelvis irradiation in prostate cancer: A dosimetric and plan robustness study between photons and protons. Technical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology. 2018;6:11-19.

Lee H, Macomber M, et. al. Early toxicity and patient reported quality-of-life in patients receiving proton therapy for localized prostate cancer: a single institutional review of prospectively recorded outcomes. Radiation Oncology. 2018;13(1):1-9.

Takagi M, Demizu Y, et. al. Long‐term outcomes in patients treated with proton therapy for localized prostate cancer Cancer Med. 2017 Oct; 6(10): 2234–2243.

Bryant C, Smith T, et al. Five-Year Biochemical Results, Toxicity, and Patient-Reported Quality of Life After Delivery of Dose-Escalated Image Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 May; 95(1): 422-434.


M.Fok, S. Toh, J.E. Maducolil, et al. Proton Beam Therapy in Rectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis British Journal of Surgery, Volume 108, Issue Supplement_2, May 2021, znab135.020,

Koroulakis A, Molitoris J, Kaiser A, Hanna N, Bafford A, Jiang Y, Bentzen S,Regine WF, RE-IRRADIATION FOR RECTAL CANCER USING PENCIL-BEAM SCANNING PROTON THERAPY: A SINGLE INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCE, Advances in Radiation Oncology (2020).

Vaios E, Wo J, et. al. Proton beam radiotherapy for anal and rectal cancers.J Gastrointest Oncol. 2020 Feb; 11(1): 176–186.


Wang Y, Deng W, Li N, et al. Combining Immunotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Treatment: Current Challenges and Future Directions. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:185.

Zhang H, Chen J. Current status and future directions of cancer immunotherapy. J Cancer 2018; 9(10):1773-1781.

Lee HJ, Zeng J, Rengan R. Proton beam therapy and immunotherapy: an emerging partnership for immune activation in non-small cell lung cancer. Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2018;7(2):180-188.


Moon SH, Suh Y. The Role of Modern Radiotherapy Technology in the Treatment of Esophageal Cancer.Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020 Aug 5; 53(4): 184 -190.

Jethwa KR, Haddock MG, et, al. The emerging role of proton therapy for esophagus cancer.J Gastrointest Oncol. 2020 Feb;11(1):144-156.

Lin SH, Hobbs BP, Verma V, et, al. Randomized Phase IIB Trial of Proton Beam Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2020 Mar 11:JCO1902503.

DeCesaris CM, McCarroll R, Mishra MV, et. al.Assessing Outcomes of Patients Treated with Re-irradiation Utilizing Proton Pencil-Beam Scanning for Primary or Recurrent Malignancies of the Esophagus and Gastroesophageal Junction. J Thorac Oncol. 2020 Mar 4. pii: S1556-0864(20)30144-1.

Celik E, Baus W, et. al. Volumetric modulated arc therapy versus intensity-modulated proton therapy in neoadjuvant irradiation of locally advanced oesophageal cancer.Radiation Oncol. 2020 May 24.

Patel S, Edgington S. et. al. Novel use of proton beam therapy for neoadjuvant treatment of radiation-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2019 Feb;10(1):155-160.

Beltran C, Schultz HL, et. al. Radiation biology considerations of proton therapy for gastrointestinal cancers.J Gastrointest Oncol. 2020 Feb;11(1):225-230.

Barsky AR, Reddy VK, Plastaras JP, et. al. Proton beam re-irradiation for gastrointestinal malignancies: a systematic review.J Gastrointest Oncol. 2020 Feb; 11(1):187-202.

Liu C, Bhangoo RS, et. al. Dosimetric comparison of distal esophageal carcinoma plans for patients treated with small-spot intensity-modulated proton versus volumetric-modulated arc therapies. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2019 May 21; 257(6):1309-1318.


FUKUMITSUN, ISHIKAWA H, et, al. Proton Therapy for Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma: The First Nationwide Retrospective Study in Japan.International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Pathophysiology and Drug Research.2020 Jun 29.


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